到 2016-03-15 這天為止，我們的朋友巴賽．卡爾塔畢在敘利亞已被囚禁了四年。眾多自由知識運動的參與者，用著自身所熟悉的協作、網絡、混用方法，訴求他的釋放。廣大的人權社群，如國際特赦組織，也一起攜手聲援。在去年十月，我們的訴求變得非常緊急，因為卡爾塔畢不知道被移送到何處，或有可能被軍事法庭秘密判決。因著他的消失，多項計畫隨即發動。其中包括以卡爾塔畢之前所量測的三維資料為基礎的一項古城再現計畫 #NEWPALMYRA [^1]，以及兩本書的發行。《等候……》[^2] 由卡爾塔畢的妻子諾拉．卡芝．撒法地所撰寫。同時，近五十位朋友和資源共有的信念者編寫了《自由的代價：集體的探尋》[^3]。這些計畫的目的在於彰顯並延續巴賽的工作，並要求他的立即自由。
在此轉換時刻，寫一篇類同評論《自由的代價》的稿件，應該還算合適。此書貢獻者眾多，其中許多曾參與台灣創用 CC 計畫過去十多年所發起的活動和計畫。這本書是個人、內省的創作，全然內生於知識共有運動之中，而這也是台灣創用 CC 計畫所處在的歷史情境。這書也掙扎著要去批評並拓展這些運動的視野，但同時彰顯這些運動為實現一個良善未來的努力、代價、以及其重要性。
《自由的代價》一書的發想，早在於 2010 年一月。那時我參與了《協作未來》[^6] 一書的衝刺書寫，我記得那時候亞當．海德談到走向開放的痛苦。他是「自由開源軟體手冊」以及「衝刺書寫」兩項計畫的發起人。《自由的代價》也是以衝刺書寫的方式完成，只不過文章來自世界各地。（譯註：衝刺書寫意指聚集一群人，在短時間內把一本書寫出來，譯自英文 book sprint 一詞。）
海德的〈為何我拒絕了私有財產化的自我〉是書中的一章。文中他論述，將被私有財產化的生活，層層剝離的痛苦。有些諷刺的是，海德是在考慮是否將 Book Sprints 一詞去註冊為商標，是否將其覆上私有財產紋理的當下，質問了自己：這代價究竟為何？醒悟之後，他拒絕提出商標申請。
收錄於《自由的代價》的短文，也不是每篇都是論說文。安娜蘇亞．申古帕的短詩〈自由對你們的意義是什麼，政府先生們？〉，呼喚「過去幾年在世界各處，受到當地政府騷擾，監禁或被消失的眾多記者∕作家∕網際網路運動者的姓名」，將營救巴賽的動員及其成敗意涵，放大引伸。經由〈自由〉這首法語詩，唐娜特拉．德拉．若塔以 1942 年黑暗時刻中的希望，隱喻此刻敘利亞的黑暗與希望。她同時也以這首詩，對著作權的成本以及化解方法，下了個巧妙的註解。
麥克．領思維爾 (Mike Linksvayer) 是「軟體自由保護組織」理事會成員。於 2003 年到 2012 年之間，他服務於 Creative Commons，擔任技術長以及副總裁，目前是資深研究員。早於 2000 年，他共同創立了 Bitzi 這個早期的開放內容∕開放資料的巨型合作平台。
Mike Linksvayer 麥克．領思維爾
Bassel Khartabil 巴賽．卡爾塔畢
Noura Ghazi Safadi 諾拉．卡芝．撒法地
Adam Hyde 亞當．海德
Barry Threw 貝瑞．涂爾
Giorgos Cheliotis 喬治．伽立歐提
Shauna Gordon-McKeon 肖娜．高登-麥科恩
Mélanie Dulong de Rosnay 梅娜妮．督儂．德侯內
Anasuya Sengupta 安娜蘇亞．申古帕
Donatella Della Ratta 唐娜特拉．德拉．若塔
[^3]: 《自由的代價》以 CC0 公眾領域貢獻宣言（1.0 版）釋出，可在網站 http://costoffreedom.cc 閱讀及取得，並可自由下載、混用、分享。
[^4]: 莊庭瑞的網頁： http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/~trc/public/
[^5]: 陳舜伶放在「社會科學研究網路」上的論文： http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1653537
Cost of Freedom:
By Mike Linksvayer
meditations on the costs, rewards, and necessity of freedom for all, and immediately for our friend
Our friend Bassel Khartabil has been imprisoned in Syria for four years as of 2016-03-15. Participants in various free knowledge movements, have campaigned for his release, using our native methodologies of collaboration, networking, and remix. We have been joined by the broader human rights community, including organizations such as Amnesty International. The campaign took on a new urgency last October, when Khartabil had been transferred to an unknown location, possibly to be judged in secret by a military court. Projects launched immediately following his disappearance include #NEWPALMYRA[^1] which builds on Khartabil's 3D modeling of the ancient city, and two books: Waiting...[^2] by Noura Ghazi Safadi, who is married to Khartabil, and Cost of Freedom: A Collective Inquiry[^3] with contributions from 50 friends and commoners. These projects aim to honor and continue Bassel's work, and demand his immediate freedom.
I understand that this text will appear in the last issue of the Creative Commons Taiwan newsletter in its current form. CC Taiwan has long been one of the best organized and most effective CC affiliates. I'm proud to count CC Taiwan's leader Tyng-Ruey Chuang and first legal director Shun-Ling Chen as friends and collaborators. I urge all to learn from their publications[^4][^5] on collaboration, policy, and human rights.
A quasi-reivew of Cost of Freedom seems appropriate for this juncture. Many of the book's contributors have participated in events and projects led by CC Taiwan over the past 10+ years. The book is personal and inward-looking, certainly native to knowledge commons movements, within which is one of the ways CC Taiwan is historically situated. The book also struggles to critique and expand the horizons of these movements, while also honoring their efforts, costs, and importance to achieving a good future.
The idea for Cost of Freedom goes back to at least January, 2010. That's when I recall FLOSS Manuals and Book Sprints founder Adam Hyde talking about the pain of becoming open, during the Collaborative Futures[^6] book sprint. Cost of Freedom would also be written in a sprint, but with essays contributed from around the world.
One of those essays is Hyde's Why I Refused My Proprietary Self, concerning the pain of peeling off layers of proprietary living. Ironically, the prospect of costs is what woke Hyde up from the path of adding another proprietary layer, of obtaining trademark for Book Sprints in this case.
The first book sprints[^7] were used to create manuals for free software. In recent years, the methodology has been used to produce both more conceptual (Collaborative Futures was the first) and specialized yet accessible books, e.g, Understanding Oil Contracts[^8] and Mining Contracts: How to Read and Understand Them.[^9] Up to 5 days of intense in person collaboration often obtains a unique collective voice for the resulting book.
That collective voice is missing from the Cost of Freedom. Part of it was written and all assembled at an in-person book sprint, but essentially none of the text is in a collective voice, largely due to accepting contributions from non-sprinters -- something that I encouraged.[^10] These contributions give the book more range than it would have had otherwise, but also make it more of a lightly edited volume rather than, as its subtitle claims, a collective inquiry. Perhaps that book remains to be sprinted.
The Cost of Freedom essays that work best are directly about Khartabil or about the broader costs of free knowledge movements. Barry Threw's The Uncommon Creativity of Bassel Khartabil gives a sense of the personal and social moorings of the Free Bassel campaign[^11]:
Eventually, Bassel came walking through the dark to that checkpoint, and with more whispers to lackluster guards I was on my way to Damascus. Christopher met our group the next day, and together we all embraced Bassel's world, one of standing up for freedom, and constantly giving to his friends and community, that to this day inspires us to push further. This Uncommon Creativity, an ability to innovate and invent in the future while building on the past, is what makes him a vital visionary for the Syrian community
Several essays offer helpful criticisms of free knowledge movements, among them John Wilbanks' Inside or Outside the Movement about the costs of internecine posturing, Giorgos Cheliotis' The Shit of Freedom, a rant of love and frustration with movement participants "too busy working on your sales pitch, or curating your posse", and Shauna Gordon-McKeon's Free Culture in an Expensive World:
Acting in solidarity with the struggle for physical security and against abuse is not only the right thing to do, it benefits all of us. When the free culture movement represents the fullness of human diversity, scratching your own itch will leave everyone satisfied. When it contains everyone who shares its values, we'll have the resources and the reach we need to ensure a vibrant and widely-treasured digital commons.
In Transdisciplinarity Mélanie Dulong de Rosnay argues that for many of us, the costs of struggling for free knowledge are small, and the rewards great:
The cruel detention of Bassel Khartabil reminds us of the incredible luck of living in such a privileged environment with freedom of expression. My only social cost has been exclusion by conservative people from whom I needed neither approval nor friendship, and this doesn't even happen so much anymore since openness is becoming more politically correct and even hyped in Western culture.
To newcomers wondering if the cost in terms of time and efforts is worth the involvement: it is nothing compared to the inspiration gained and the joy and pride of contributing to a global movement that is developing positive alternatives to enclosures, and promoting social justice, freedom and access to knowledge, information, culture and education, good food and medicine.
Not every Cost of Freedom contribution is in essay form. Anasuya Sengupta's poem What Does Freedom Mean to You, Mr. Government? raises the stakes of the campaign to free Bassel by invoking "names of journalists/writers/Internet activists from different parts of the world who have been harassed, imprisoned, or disappeared by their governments in the past few years." With Liberté, Donatella Della Ratta invokes hope from another dark time (1942) to this dark time in Syria, while slyly dropping a footnote about the cost of copyright and its workarounds.
Tyng-Ruey Chuang's contribution brings us back to the personal. Its last phrases perhaps serve as the best summary of Cost of Freedom: A Collective Inquiry:
Getting to freedom is not cost free. My friend it is not free. MY FRIEND IS NOT FREE.
This work is dedicated to the public domain (CC0).
Mike Linksvayer serves on the board of Software Freedom Conservancy. From 2003 to 2012 he served as CTO and VP of Creative Commons, where he is now a Senior Fellow. In 2000 he co-founded Bitzi, an early open content/open data mass collaboration platform.
[^3]: Cost of Freedom is released under CC0-1.0 and may be read, downloaded, remixed, and shared at http://costoffreedom.cc
[^4]: Tyng-Ruey Chuang's public home page: http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/~trc/public/
[^5]: Shun-Ling Chen's papers at the Social Science Research Network: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1653537
[^10]: This is a quasi-review at best because I was involved in organizing Cost of Freedom contributions and contributed an essay. Of course being at once a consumer and producer of the same works is endemic to free knowledge movements, and both empowering and costly.